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What is analog-to-digital conversion of signals?


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What is analog-to-digital conversion of signals?

A discrete-time signal is defined by specifying its value only at discrete times, called sampling instants. When the sampled values are quantised and encoded, a digital signal is obtained. A digital signal is obtained from the analog signal by using an analog-to-digital converter. This entire process is referred to as the conversion of signals from analog to digital form.

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Explain the steps involved in demodulating a signal.

Once the signal is coded, modulated and then sent, the receiver must demodulate the signal. This is usually done in two steps :1. Spectrum spreading (e.g., direct sequence or frequency hopping) modulation is removed.2. The remaining information beari... view more
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What is analog-to-digital conversion of signals?

A discrete-time signal is defined by specifying its value only at discrete times, called sampling instants. When the sampled values are quantised and encoded, a digital signal is obtained. A digital signal is obtained from the analog signal by using ... view more
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What are the various types of numbers for network identity?

Various types of number for network identity are as follows :1. MSISDN ( Mobile station ISDN) Number : It is international mobile subscriber number which is normally called mobile number. It is unique worldwide.2. MSRN ( Mobile Subscriber Routing Num... view more
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List some advantages of GSM.

Here are some advantages of GSM :1. GSM is mature, this maturity means a more stable network with robust features.2. Less signal deterioration inside buildings.3. Ability to use repeaters.4. Talk time is generally higher in GSM phones due to pulse na... view more
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What is ionospheric bending?

When a radio wave travels into the ionospheric layer it experiences refraction due to difference in density. The density of ionospheric layer is rarer than the layer below which causes the radio wave to be bent away from the normal. Also the radio wa... view more
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What are different categories of antenna and give an example of each?

Different categories of antenna are as follows : Wire Antennas - Short Dipole Antenna Microstrip Antennas - Rectangular Microstrip (Patch) Antennas Reflector Antennas - Corner Reflector Travelling Wave Antennas - Helical Antennas&... view more
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How can a Pseudo Random Noise code be usable?

To be usable for direct sequence spreading, a PN code must meet the following conditions :1. Sequence must be built from 2 levelled numbers.2. The codes must have sharp autocorrelation peak to enable code synchronization.3. Codes must have a low cros... view more
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What are the advantages of CDMA?

Advantages of CDMa are as follows :1. Frequency diversity : Transmission is spread out over a large bandwidth due to that less affected by noise. If bandwidth is increased S/N ratio increases, which means noise will be reduced.2. Multiplication Resis... view more
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What are GPRS services?

GPRS services are defined to fall in one of the two categories :- PTP ( Point to point)- PTM ( Point to Multipoint)Some of the GPRS services are not likely to be provided by network operators during early deployment of GPRS due in part to t... view more
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Explain the concept of frequency re-use.

The whole of the geographical area is divided into hexagonal shape geometrical area called cell and each cell having its own transceiver. Each BTS (cell site) allocated different band of frequency or different channel. Each BTS antenna is designed in... view more
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Explain radio environment in building.

Building penetration : Building penetration depends on the material used for construction and architecture used. This varies building to building and is based on building construction.Building Height Effect : The signal strength is always higher at t... view more
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What is handover and what are its types?

Handover in mobile communication refers to the process of transferring a call from one network cell to another without breaking the call.There are two types of handover which are as follows :Hard Handoff : hard handoff is the process in which the cel... view more
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What are the advantages of spread spectrum?

SPread spectrum has the following advantages :1. No crosstalk interference.2. Better voice quality/data integrity and less static noise.3. Lowered susceptibility to multipath fading.4. Inherent security.5. Co-existence.6. Longer operating distances.7... view more
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What is CDMA?

CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access which uses digital format. In CDMA systems several transmissions via the radio interface take place simultaneously on the same frequency bandwidth. User data is combined at the transmitter’s side with a... view more
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Explain Bluetooth.

Bluetooth is designed to be a personal area network, where participating entities are mobile and require sporadic communication with others. It is omni directional i.e. it does not have line of sight limitation like infra red does. Ericsson started t... view more
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What are the drawbacks of walsh codes?

Walsh codes have the following drawbacks :1. The codes do not have a single, narrow autocorrelation peak.2. The spreading is not over the whole bandwidth; instead the energy is spread over a number of discrete frequency components.3. Although the ful... view more
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What are the properties of ROC for z-Transform?

Properties of the ROC for the z-Transform :1. X(z) converges uniformly if and only if the ROC of the z-transform X(z) of the sequence includes the unit circle. The ROC of X(z) consists of a ring in the z-plane centered about the origin. That is, the ... view more
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What are applications of DSP?

Some selected applications or digital signal processing that are often encountered in daily life are listed as follows:1. Telecommunication: Echo cancellation in telephone networks.2. Military Radar signal processing3. Consumer electronics Digital Au... view more
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What are the parts of Network Management System ( NMS )?

Following are the parts of network management system :1. OMC : Operation and maintenance center - Computerized monitoring center.2. NMC : Network Management Center - Centralized control of a network is done here.3. OSS : Operation and support system ... view more
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What are the functions of Base Station System ( BSS)?

Functions of BSS are as follows :1. Radio path control.2. BTS and TC control.3. Connection establishment with MS-NSS.4. Mobility management, speech transcoding.5. Connection of statistical data.electronics and communication interview questions... view more
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electronics and communication (ec) best Interview Questions have been designed especially to get you acquainted with the nature of questions you may encounter during your interview for the subject of electronics and communication (ec) Programming Language. here some questions that helpful for your interview.